Diabetes Mellitus is a group of disorders that is caused by inappropriate function of insulin which is a hormone accountable for regulation of blood sugar or blood glucose.
As for type 1 diabetes definition is concern it is an ailment in which either pancreas produces little or no insulin and it is a kind of autoimmune disease.
This produced insulin hormone helps body cells to utilize the blood sugar known as glucose for energy.
During the process of food digestion, carbohydrates are broken down into glucose which got absorbed into the bloodstream, from where it reached to different cells throughout your body.
Insulin helps your cells to absorb the glucose from blood and allowing it to be used as energy.
In a healthy person, pancreas keep on releasing the insulin into your bloodstream.
Once we eat our blood glucose levels rise and your pancreas responds it by releasing more insulin to move the glucose into your cells. Insulin acts as a key for opening the door (receptor) lying on the cell so glucose can enter inside the cell.
Brief knowledge about Pancreas and it function
The pancreas is a gland with two main functions; i) Secretion of hormone Insulin (beta cells) and glucagon (alpha-cell) because of it endocrine nature and ii) Secretion of enzymes into the digestive tract to facilitate the digestion of food doe to it exocrine function.
Hormones produced by pancreas help in the body metabolism.
Generally high blood sugar sense by Beta-cell to produce insulin so that excess sugar can be stored in the liver and muscle, whereas low sugar is sensed by Alpha-cell to release glucagon which cause release of glucose in the blood from the liver.
The co-ordination of both the hormone maintain the normal blood sugar level.
What happen during Type 1 Diabetes?
In Type 1 Diabetes, because of the destruction of the Beta cells, pancreas can’t produce the insulin or produces very little which is unable to lower the blood glucose level and there will be an unbalanced in the glucagon response. Altogether this resulted in the raising of the Blood sugar which is also known as Hyperglycemia.
To understand Type 1 diabetes we have to understand a little bit about the immune system and autoimmunity.
The immune system is made up of a lot of different cell types that are each specialized to fight a particular type of infection. So it’s very complicated and actually it needs to be because there are a huge number of different types of microbes, viruses, bacteria etc. that might decide to attack us and we have to be able to defend ourselves robustly against these.
Some of you may have heard of the boy in the bubble which was a famous case of a child that was born without a functioning immune system and this child had to live out his short life within a sterile bubble. Any contact with the outside environment would have meant certain death from infections that he had no way of fighting off. So a functioning immune system is absolutely vital for survival.
But there is another side to the immune system we often talk about it as a double-edged sword because as well as being critical for immune defense. It also has the potential to cause us problems.
So if immune responses are directed against our own tissues rather than against invading microbes we can develop autoimmune diseases. The type of disease we get depends on which particular tissue is attacked by the immune system. So it is the joint in rheumatoid arthritis, the skin in psoriasis, the pancreas in diabetes.
So the immune system is a powerful weapon system to target invading microbes but if that targeting is not perfect we can get collateral damage that causes autoimmune diseases.
Actually these autoimmune diseases are on the rise we’re seeing increases in multiple sclerosis, Rheumatoid arthritis, and scleroderma.
What is the underlying cause for the Beta cells destruction?
Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune disease and from name it is clear that immune system has to do something here.
Generally what happens is that, who develops Type 1 Diabetes was born with a genetic predisposition to the disease. This does not necessarily mean that they have disease at birth rather their genes causing them to be more prospective to develop Type 1 Diabetes due to some sort of environmental trigger. Although this part of the disease process is not well understood. These triggers could be something possibly like a virus, or some sort of toxin, or something else. After this triggers the individual T-cells start attacking on the Beta cells of pancreases which are responsible for insulin production.
When pancreas cannot produce any insulin individual will develop Type 1 Diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes symptoms
Under normal condition and in healthy individual, blood sugar released in the blood stream after digestion will be exported to different organs in the body such as the brain, and the muscles, as well as the liver.
Most of the time excess sugar got stored in the either liver of muscle. But unfortunately in the case of type 1 diabetes, due to absence of insulin, the blood glucose gets blocked, almost like the body is starving despite having all this glucose in the organs and tissues. Under this situation liver acts like it is starving and it releases its stored glucose back into the blood. Which further increased the level of blood sugar. Then body start using alternate source of energy such as stored fat. Since body senses almost like it’s starving even though it has all of this glucose present in the blood. And this consequences in symptoms like tiredness and fatigue.
Type 1 diabetes treatment
As for type 1 diabetes cure is concern, there is no permanent cure rather it have good treatment options.
It has been found that the people having type 1 diabetes can live long and a healthy lives. For that they need to maintain their blood sugar levels normal.
All the type 1 diabetes are given insulin shots to control their blood sugar. They should adjust the quantity of insulin, food, and activities as necessary for proper sugar level. Without fail they are advice to do exercise as part of treating their type 1 diabetes.
Many of the patient ask, is type 1 diabetes reversible, so we can say in allopathic system of medicine it is not reversible.
More information about type 1 diabetes may be found here.
Disclaimer: This content including advice provides a general information only. It is in no way a substitute for trained medical practitioner opinion. Always consult a specialist or your own doctor for more information. We does not claim obligation for this information.
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