What inflammatory bowel disease is?

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of conditions that causes swelling and irritation in the digestive tract due to inflammation (red, swollen, and sometimes painful).

There is a very similar name Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that happen when the contents of your large intestine move either too quickly or too slowly.

So one should not confuse with IBD and IBS.

Types of IBD

Inflammatory bowel disease includes 2 chronic idiopathic inflammatory diseases known as Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Cohn disease (CD). They are characterized by chronic relapsing intestinal inflammation. 

Even though both Crohn’s and ulcerative colitis are caused by immune dysregulation there are some differences between them.

Ulcerative colitis is limited to the inner lining or mucosa of the large intestine which is also called the colon.

However, in case of Crohn’s disease, the inflammation can be found anywhere between lips and anus and through all the layers of the intestinal lining.

Inflammatory bowel disease symptoms

Because the inflammation can go through all the layers of the intestine it can sometimes cause scarring and narrowing in the intestine which is called a stricture or even a hole in the intestine. A hole can cause an abscess which is a pocket of infection outside of the intestine or a fistula which is like a tiny tunnel from the intestine to another part of the body.

Inflammation from IBD can give you symptoms like diarrhea, stomach pain, and blood in your poop, vomiting, fevers, joint pain, poor growth and feeling really tired and not hungry.

Clinical features of symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease includes (for both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis) include chronic or nocturnal diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss, whereas in symptoms typically bloody diarrhea with rectal urgency and tenesmus.

Cause of IBD

In general IBD caused by dysregulation of the immune system.

It is a kind of a polygenic disorder having contributions from the intestinal microbiome, defects in intestinal barrier function, and dysregulated host responses to microbial stimulation.

Normally the immune system plays a very important role in surveillance for all sort of infections. When it finds any infection it turns itself up to fight off the infection and then turns itself down when the infection is gone.

However in IBD it is turned up even when it shouldn’t be. Inflammatory bowel disease causes discomfort and inflammation in the intestines and sometimes other areas like the eyes, liver, skin or joints.

Etiology of IBD

The etiology behind IBD remains largely unknown and it is thought that a complex interaction between the genetic, environmental or microbial factors and the immune responses play important role.

Most of the time the genetic risk is related to defective sensing of microbes and their metabolites or defective regulation of the host response towards the microbiota.

The possible mechanism responsible for it is the exaggerated T-cell response towards the enteric pathogens, genetically susceptible of host.

The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease is still unclear, but in both autoimmune and immune-mediated phenomena are involved.

Autoimmune features include the presence of serum and mucosal autoantibodies against intestinal epithelial cells in both form of IBD.

Inflammatory bowel disease treatments

There is no cure for IBD but it can be treated by turning down the overactive immune system.

Drug treatments for IBD now include five biological drugs listed by the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme such as adalimumab, infliximab, golimumab, vedolizumab and ustekinumab.

Diet may play both a causal and therapeutic role for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, there well-established guidelines on of diet as a treatment of IBD.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of conditions that causes swelling and irritation in the digestive tract due to inflammation (red, swollen, and sometimes painful). There is a very similar name Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that happen when the contents of your large intestine move either too quickly or too slowly. So one should not confuse with IBD and IBS.

Disclaimer: This content including advice provides a general information only. It is in no way a substitute for trained medical practitioner opinion. Always consult a specialist or your own doctor for more information. We does not claim obligation for this information.

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